Proceedings Series

Vol. 14 (2021), No. 3, pp. 475 – 650




all authors

D. Blaschke, A.V. Friesen, Yu.B. Ivanov, Yu.L. Kalinovsky, M. Kozhevnikova, S. Liebing, A. Radzhabov, G. Röpke

QCD Phase Diagram at NICA Energies: \(K^+/\pi ^+\) Horn Effect and Light Clusters in THESEUS

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 485 (2021)

page 485 •


We discuss recent progress in the development of the three-fluid hydro-dynamics-based program THESEUS towards an event generator suitable for applications to heavy-ion collisions at the intermediate energies of the planned NICA and FAIR experiments. We follow the strategy that modifications of particle distributions at the freeze-out surface in the QCD phase diagram may be mapped directly to the observable ones within a sudden freeze-out scheme. We report first results of these investigations for the production of light clusters (deuterons and tritons) which can be compared to experimental data from the HADES and the NA49 experiments and for the interpretation of the “horn” effect observed in the collision energy dependence of the \(K^+/\pi ^+\) ratio. Medium effects on light cluster production in the QCD phase diagram are negligible at the highest NICA energies but shall play a dominant role at the lowest energies. A sharp “horn”-type signal in the \(K^+/\pi ^+\) ratio can be obtained when the onset of Bose condensation modelled by a pion chemical potential results in an enhancement of pions at low momenta (which is seen at the LHC energies) and would occur already in the NICA energy range.

Short-lived Resonances and Neutral Mesons in the Physical Program of the NICA-MPD

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 491 (2021)

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Short-lived hadronic resonances such as \(K^{\ast }(892)\), \(\rho (770)\), \(\phi (1020)\), \({\mit \Sigma }(1385)\), \({\mit \Lambda }(1520)\) and \({\mit \Xi }(1530)\) are used to study different aspects of particle production and collision dynamics in \(pp\), \(p+A\) and \(A+A\) collisions. The yields of resonances are sensitive to the competing processes of hadron rescattering and regeneration, thus making these particles unique probes of the properties of the late hadronic phase. Measurements of resonances with different masses and quantum numbers also provide insight into strangeness production and processes that determine the shapes of particle momentum spectra. We discuss results of the model-based studies of the influence of the hadronic phase on the measured properties of resonances in heavy-ion collisions at NICA energies. Moreover, we discuss prospects for resonance measurements in the MPD experimental setup and results of the feasibility studies obtained using Monte Carlo simulation of the detector performance.

all authors

V. Kondratiev, C. Ceballos, S. Igolkin, A. Kolozhvari, Y. Murin, A. Sheremetiev

Detection of \(D^+\)-meson Decays in the Tracking System of NICA-MPD

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 497 (2021)

page 497 •


The silicon vertex detector is a part of the NICA-MPD tracking system, designed for efficient detection of the short-lived products of nucleus–nucleus interactions. The paper presents the results of computer simulations of the identification capability of the MPD tracking system, when reconstructing the decays of \(D^+\) produced in central Au+Au collisions at \(\sqrt {S_{NN}} = 9\) GeV. Both, the time-projection chamber and the vertex detector based on monolithic active pixel sensors were taken into consideration.

all authors

P. Parfenov, I. Segal, D. Idrisov, V.B. Luong, A. Taranenko, A. Demanov, A. Truttse, E. Volodikhin

Centrality Determination in Heavy-ion Collisions with MPD Detector at NICA

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 503 (2021)

page 503 •


Centrality is a key parameter for defining the collision system size in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The centrality determination provides a tool for comparing the anticipated measurements with Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) at NICA with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations. The performance for collision centrality determination in MPD experiment using the multiplicity of produced particles is presented.

Feasibility Studies of Femtoscopic Measurements in MPD

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 507 (2021)

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Femtoscopy is one of the methods used in high-energy physics. This technique is used to measure the size of the source created as a result of heavy-ions collision. By using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, it is possible to estimate the precision of such measurements. This paper discusses estimation of the precision of the femtoscopic measurements in the MPD experiment by using the MC data.

all authors

A. Bychkov, V. Kekelidze, O. Rogachevsky, R. Esenov, D. Kibizov, N. Pukhaeva

Material Budget Study of the MPD Detector at the NICA Collider

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 511 (2021)

page 511 •


The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is the experiment at the NICA collider. Due to the nested construction of the collider experiments, the construction of the each inner detector of MPD has an effect on the working of the other outer detectors and should be studied very carefully to make proper estimation of its material. The material budget study of the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is considered in details.

all authors

A. Taranenko, P. Parfenov, D. Idrisov, V.B. Luong, A. Demanov, A. Truttse, E. Volodikhin

Anisotropic Flow Measurements with Multi-Purpose Detector at NICA

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 515 (2021)

page 515 •


The anisotropic transverse flow is one of the key observables to study the properties of dense matter created in heavy-ion collisions. The performance of Multi-Purpose Detector for directed and elliptic flow measurements is studied with Monte Carlo simulations of heavy-ion collisions at NICA energies \(\sqrt {s_{NN}} = 4\)–11 GeV.

Development of Algorithms for Track Reconstruction and Matching in the ITS and TPC Detectors at MPD/NICA

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 519 (2021)

page 519 •


As one of the possible MPD/NICA upgrade steps, an Inner Tracking System (ITS) is considered to be installed between the beam pipe and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). It is expected that the new detector will increase the experiment’s research potential if its advantages are fully exploited. For this, a special track reconstruction algorithm, called Vector Finder, is developed. This paper explains an approach used to match ITS and TPC tracks and presents some performance results for Monte Carlo simulated data.

all authors

V.V. Kulikov, S.A. Bulychjov, M.A. Martemianov, M.A. Matsyuk, A.V. Skoblyakov, I.A. Tyapkin

Main Parameters of MPD Electromagnetic Calorimeter in Latest Geometry Version

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 525 (2021)

page 525 •


A large cylindrical electromagnetic calorimeter is being built for the MPD/NICA detector. The final design of its supporting structure was recently approved. It greatly affected the design of the calorimeter itself and added a significant amount of passive materials. A program for geometric description of the calorimeter, taking into account the supporting structure, has just been developed by the ITEP team. In this report, the first Monte Carlo testing of this version of the calorimeter is presented and its main parameters are evaluated.

Performance of the MPD Detector for the Study of Multi-strange Baryon Production in Heavy-ion Collisions at the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA)

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 529 (2021)

page 529 •


Presented are selected results of the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) for reconstruction of \({\mit \Lambda }\) and \({\mit \Xi }\)-baryons and \(K^0\)-mesons in a Monte Carlo simulation of heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA). The results were obtained from the full MPD simulation and reconstruction chain, and include yields, spectra, and anisotropy coefficients from the centrality selected Au+Au collisions.

all authors

M.A. Martemianov, S.A. Bulychjov, V.V. Kulikov, M.A. Matsyuk, Yu.F. Krechetov, A.Yu. Semenov, I.A. Semenova, I.A. Tyapkin

MPD Electromagnetic Calorimeter Simulation

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 533 (2021)

page 533 •


In the frame of the NICA/MPD project, a unique cylindrical electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal) is under construction. Recently, the design of the power frame was completed. This led to significant changes in the calorimeter structure. The report gives a brief description of the new ECal geometry and the modification of simulation procedure. As part of this program, independent module options have been developed to use in the test measurements on cosmic rays and electron beams.

The First Cosmic Ray Measurements for Future MCORD Project

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 537 (2021)

page 537 •


Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is a main detector set for the future Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) located in Dubna, Russia. The MPD needs an additional trigger system for off-beam calibration and for the rejection of cosmic ray particles (mainly muons) for full functionality. The prototype Cosmic Ray measurement system for MPD detector is under development. It is called the MPD Cosmic Ray Detector (MCORD). For calibration results of Extended Cosmic Shower (ECS) simulation, we need the real Cosmic Ray (CR) measurement results performed at the NICA location. This article describes the first CR measurements done with the Cosmic Watch simple detectors based on the small \(5~\mathrm {cm}\times 5\) cm plastic scintillators with silicon photomultiplier photodetectors (SiPM).

Minimum Resolution of MCORD as a Consequence of Astrophysical Observation Requirements

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 543 (2021)

page 543 •


The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) needs an additional trigger system for off-beam calibration and rejection of cosmic ray particles for full functionality. The prototype cosmic ray measurement system for MPD detector is under development and is named MPD Cosmic Ray Detector (MCORD). It can detect muons coming from all directions between zenith and horizon, with information about particle direction vector. Theoretically, it is possible to recognize the extragalactic source of a cosmic particle but only in the case of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHE CR) connected to ECS. We need to use the optimal MCORD position resolution to identify the possible sources on the sky surface.

all authors

A. Chlopik, A. Bancer, M. Bielewicz, A. Dudzinski, E. Jaworska, D. Dabrowski, N. Dunin, J. Grzyb, M. Milewicz-Zalewska, M.J. Peryt, K. Roslon, J. Rzadkiewicz

The Dosimetry Protection of the MPD Electronic Equipment at the New NICA Collider — the Prototype System

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 549 (2021)

page 549 •


The large accumulation of the electronic measuring devices near MPD raises concerns about its radiation resistance in the MPD-PIT room. The goal is to design and build a monitoring unit for ionizing radiation harmful to personnel as well as neutrons generated in the experimental process for the operation of electronic equipment. The prototype dosimetry system to protect electronic equipment project was started in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, for continuous monitoring of Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) Slow Control electronics. The article describes the state of that system after two years of work on its development and future plans.

all authors

W.M. Zabołotny, A. Byszuk, M. Gumiński, G. Kasprowicz, M. Kruszewski, K. Poźniak, R. Romaniuk, D. Emschermann, C.J. Schmidt

GBTX Emulation for BM@N/MPD Data Acquisition Systems

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 555 (2021)

page 555 •


The GBTX chip is widely used in high-energy experiments. However, due to export restrictions, it cannot be used in NICA. There is significant synergy in building readout chains for CBM and NICA experiments. To fully utilize this synergy, it is important to emulate the essential GBTX functionality in FPGA. For that purpose, the emulator of GBTX (GBTxEMU) has been developed. The GBTxEMU may be implemented in cheap FPGAs, including Artix-7, and enables creating multichannel data acquisition chains based on the same front-end ASICs (SMX2 developed at AGH) as the one used in CBM. The GBTxEMU may work with the DPB boards developed for CBM, but a dedicated, price-optimized solution is under development.

Primary Vertex Reconstruction in the BM@N Experiment

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 559 (2021)

page 559 •


This paper is related to the BM@N experiment and deals with an important step of the experimental data analysis — reconstruction of the primary vertex in events. The proposed algorithm for this task is described step by step in the paper. It is shown that the algorithm is strongly dependent on a set of free parameters. The selection of the best parameters and the algorithm tuning is presented.

Synergy in the Development of Forward Hadron Calorimeters for NA61/SHINE, BM@N, MPD and CBM Experiments

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 563 (2021)

page 563 •


The lead/scintillator transverse and longitudinal segmented forward hadron calorimeters will be used in the upgraded BM@N and NA61 experiments and future CBM and MPD experiments to measure centrality and reaction plane orientation in heavy-ion collisions. Common tasks in development of forward hadron calorimeters for these experiments, including development of different approaches of the centrality determination, signals treatment, energy calibration procedure are discussed.

Particle Production Properties at SPS Energy Range — Recent Results from the NA61/SHINE Experiment

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 567 (2021)

page 567 •


One of the main physics goals of the NA61/SHINE programme on strong interactions is the study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement. This goal is pursued by performing an energy- (beam momentum 13\(A\)–158\(A\) GeV/\(c\)) and system-size (\(p+p\), \(p+\,\)Pb, Be\(+\)Be, Ar\(+\)Sc, Xe\(+\)La) scan. In particular, recent inclusive spectra of identified hadrons in inelastic \(p+p\) and centrality selected Be\(+\)Be and Ar\(+\)Sc interactions at the SPS energies. The energy dependence of quantities inspired by the Statistical Model of the Early Stage (kink, horn and step) are shown.

Fluctuations and Correlations Study at NA61/SHINE

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 573 (2021)

page 573 •


The strong interactions program of NA61/SHINE, a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, focuses on the search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. The strategy of the collaboration is to perform a comprehensive two-dimensional scan of the phase diagram \(\mu _B\)–\(T\) by changing the collision energy and the system size. If in this scenario the system freeze-out occurs in the vicinity of the possible critical point, then a region of enhanced fluctuations is expected to be seen by properly sensitive fluctuation measures. The paper reviews the possible ways to study multiplicity fluctuations, e.g. in terms of pseudorapidity dependence of strongly intensive quantities or the study of the higher-order moments of multiplicity distributions. An important issue of the results corrections and possible systematic problems in the analysis is addressed.

NA61/SHINE Detector Upgrade

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 579 (2021)

page 579 •


The NA61/SHINE detector, at the CERN SPS, is undergoing a major upgrade during the LHC Long Shutdown 2 period (2019–2021). The upgrade is essential to fulfill the requirements of a new open charm measurement program. It is necessary to stress that this New Physics goal can be only achieved when the readout rate will be increased by a factor of 10 and the resolution of the secondary vertex in the high multiplicity tracks environment of Pb+Pb events will be improved. The following elements of the experiment are parts of the upgrade: Time Projection Chambers (TPC), Vertex Detector (VD), Beam Position Detectors (BPD), Particle Spectator Detector (PSD), and Time-of-Flight detectors (TOF). On top of the detectors, a new Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is being developed. In this contribution, the progress on design and development of new detectors and TDAQ system for NA61/SHINE experiment will be presented.

all authors

M. Szuta, V.A. Voronko, V.V. Sotnikov, A.A. Zhadan, E. Strugalska-Gola, M. Bielewicz

Average High-energy Neutron Flux Distribution in the Quinta Sub-critical Assembly Irradiated with Proton Beam of 0.66 GeV Energy Applying the Actinide Spectral Index Method

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 583 (2021)

page 583 •


The paper presents the results of investigations of nuclear-physical characteristics of neutron fields generated in a massive uranium target irradiated by protons with an energy of 0.66 GeV. Twenty three natural uranium samples were spatially arranged in a sub-critical assembly Quinta (at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia). The samples were irradiated with spallation neutrons. We have processed the experimental data based on gamma-ray spectrometry in order to reach (obtain) the number of neutron induced fissions and neutron captures in the detector foils. The try-and-error method was applied to obtain the neutron energy for which the ratio of the fission cross section to the capture cross section of the natural uranium, from the nuclear database, is equal to the measured ratio of the spectral indexes. The retrieved distinct fission and capture cross sections for the distinct neutron energy from the nuclear database describe the average values which enabled us to evaluate the average neutron flux and neutron fluency distribution in the assembly.

Estimation of Dislocation Density for AISI 304 Steel After Plastic Deformation Using Non-destructive Methods

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 591 (2021)

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Sustainable development is very important in today’s world. This development forces the application of innovative solutions in widely understood industrial production. Knowledge of mechanical damage and structural changes occurring after plastic deformation is of great importance from the point of view of industrial applications and material quality. The article compares the results obtained using two non-destructive methods: microhardness measurement and positron annihilation spectroscopy to studies of commercial chromium–nickel austenitic stainless AISI 304 steel. Both these methods revealed changes in the microstructure after plastic deformation. Moreover, these methods showed their suitability for estimation of dislocation density.

Non-standard GEM Foils for Gaseous Detectors

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 603 (2021)

page 603 •


Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is widely used in many applications in nuclear and particle physics. It offers the potential to develop new gaseous detectors with unprecedented spatial resolution, high rate capability, sizeable sensitive area, operational stability, and radiation hardness. In this contribution, a brief overview of gaseous detector development at the University of Warsaw will be presented, as well as basic concepts, operational mechanisms, and performance of the gas amplifier structures based on standard and non-standard GEM foils will be discussed.

Naming and Numbering Convention for the NICA Projects

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 607 (2021)

page 607 •


In every big scientific project, human influence creates disorder. For an investment as big as NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility), it is crucial to organize all the elements and minimize the chaos. One of the ways to achieve this goal is to create an Equipment Database (EqDb). Each component in the EqDb will receive its individual Part Identifier. Naming and Numbering Convention was proposed for Part Identifier creation. It was based on the existing model from CERN. The Part Id is a 16-character alpha-numeric code composed of a 7-character prefix and 9-character identifier field. These Part Identifiers will simplify component identification at the location.

Analysing Thermal Images Taken by the Fluke TiS20 Thermal Imager

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 613 (2021)

page 613 •


NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) requires a significant number of specialized devices to be built. For the sake of their thermal stability, the temperature measurement and general safety, the temperature of specific devices is measured or simulated in many different ways. One of the methods of such measurements is using a thermal imager, a non-contact way of its evaluation. However, after measuring the temperature, it needs to be properly analysed and shared in a simple and easy-to-understand manner for a person not qualified in such a field. The software given by the camera’s manufacturer is non-optimal for this specific use. Due to that the custom-made analysis application has been developed.

Management of the Monte Carlo Simulation Process in the MPD Experiment on the NICA Cluster

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 617 (2021)

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This paper shows the development of software aimed at automatization of the process of Monte Carlo simulation of event, and particle generation and propagation in Au–Au collisions in the MPD detector. It contains information about the tools used and a description of the software functioning.

Managing Large Scale Computing for MPD Experiment

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 621 (2021)

page 621 •


As the part of the TeFeNICA, we received tasks associated with physical analysis, large scale computing and data management. The main goal of our project was to create scripts in Bash or programs in C/C++ and generate events which could be used to analyse. The next step was launching our work on other clusters. The article shortly describes what tools can be used to achieve these targets.

Embedded Data Processing Using NI MyRIO and LabVIEW for Magnetic Field Measurements

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 625 (2021)

page 625 •


In order to facilitate functioning of the equipment at the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD), a part of Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) in Dubna (Russia), a magnetic field measurement system has been introduced. Its purpose is to control the shifts of the local magnetic field in order to eliminate its influence on measurements or equipment. The article concerns the functioning of the measurement system and improvements applied.

all authors

M.J. Peryt, K. Roslon, N. Dunin, U. Dąbrowska, E. Kołpa, P. Zawadzka

Data Acquisition from Spectrometry and Dosimetry Systems Using LabVIEW Environment

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 629 (2021)

page 629 •


Partial collisions in the superconducting collider NICA will generate ionizing radiation. Monitoring its intensity is an important task. Different third party ventor hardware is frequently used over the course of the scientific experiments including dosimeters, spectrometers, counters, and control system. Usually, this hardware has its own software and unique drivers with no API or external interfaces. CERN and JINR industrial standard is LabVIEW development environment from National Instruments. Moreover, this custom source code could be integrated with SCADA systems easily in the future. This is the reason for the decision to develop software based on USB express DLL library from Silicon Labs using LabVIEW for RADATEH RT-3.0 SiPM. The work includes modifying programs in LabVIEW for different devices (RADATEH RT-3.0 SiPM spectrometer, Geiger–Müller counter STS-5 and Gamma-Scout dosimeters) to allow a potential user to acquire data from them.

Dosimetry Setup Prototype for the Slow Control System of the MPD-TOF

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 633 (2021)

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The purpose of the considered project is to create an information tool for effective control of Gamma-Scout Geiger counters. The main goal of the system for nuclear and radiation safety is to protect health and life of people and to preserve the electronic equipment. Features of the proposed software are the following: (i) Real-time dose-rate measuring; (ii) Support for previous revisions of Gamma-Scout devices; (iii) Data logging and remote display of dose-rate for smartphones. However, it is impossible to record two charged particles in one Geiger tube at the same time [C. Grupen, B. Shwartz, <<Particle Detectors Second Edition>>, Cambridge Monographs on Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, 2008]. It is important to know, there are limitations in measuring high radiation rates and the energy of incident radiation.

Software for Device Designed to Measure Radiation Absorption of Various Materials

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 637 (2021)

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Software designed to control the device that measures radiation absorption of various materials made during Slow Control Summer Practice 2019, lets the user make measures without the hazard of being exposed to the ionizing radiation.

R&D of the \(r\), \(\phi \) Scanner Mechanical Construction for the Scintillator Detector Background Radiation Measurements

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 643 (2021)

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The aim of this project is the introduction to research and development of a prototype drive system for various sensors in the \(r\), \(\phi \) coordinate system. The device was designed for extensive solutions, but in this case, the focus was particularly on the cosmic ray measurement system. An extremely important issue was the easiest possible adaptability to various applications, therefore, the proposed solution was mostly made in the technology of aluminum profiles. For these above-mentioned reasons, the designed solution is expected to cover areas up to 1 m in length and 2\(\pi \) angle. After auspicious prototype tests and meeting the primary assumptions, the final device is assumed to examine the expanse up to 3 m in length and 2\(\pi \) angle. The continuation and further progress of the project will consist of the manual preparation of the measuring device, software development and real cosmic ray measurements performance.

\(XYZ\) Scanner for Magnetic Field Studies

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 647 (2021)

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In the NICA project, it is necessary to analyse a magnetic field uniformity inside the detectors magnets. The \(XYZ\) Scanner is a device designed for placing a gauge (e.g. magnetometer) in a specified point in space, constructed using Bosch aluminium profiles. Motion is realised using a step motor. The developed software allows to control engines. The existing project is a one-dimensional scanner. This paper describes the current state of development of the \(XYZ\) Scanner.

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