Regular Series

Vol. 45 (2014), No. 12, pp. 2137 – 2472

LIV Cracow School of Theoretical Physics QCD Meets Experiment

Zakopane, Poland; June 12–20, 2014

Lattice QCD: Concepts, Techniques and Some Results

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2143 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2143

article page: 2143 (contains 62 pages) •


I give a brief introduction to lattice QCD for non-specialists.

QCD at Short Distances: Jets and Factorization

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2205 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2205

article page: 2205 (contains 35 pages) •


This is a brief introduction to two of the central concepts in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, jets and factorization, which serve as windows into the short-distance behavior of quantum fields.

Brief Review of Saturation Physics

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2241 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2241

article page: 2241 (contains 15 pages) •


We present a short overview of saturation physics followed by a summary of the recent progress in our understanding of nonlinear small-\(x\) evolution. Topics include McLerran–Venugopalan model, Glauber–Mueller approximation, nonlinear BK/JIMWLK evolution equations, along with the running-coupling and NLO corrections to these equations. We conclude with selected topics in saturation phenomenology.

The Initial Stages of Heavy Ion Collisions

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2257 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2257

article page: 2257 (contains 50 pages) •


In this paper, I present the description of the early stages of heavy ion collisions at high energy in the Color Glass Condensate framework, from the pre-collision high energy nuclear wavefunction to the point where hydrodynamics may start becoming applicable.

A Phenomenological Model of the Glasma and Photon Production

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2307 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2307

article page: 2307 (contains 11 pages) •


I discuss a phenomenological model for the Glasma. I introduce over-occupied distributions for gluons, and compute their time evolution. I use this model to estimate the ratio of quarks to gluons and the entropy production as functions of time. I then discuss photon production at the RHIC and LHC, and how geometric scaling and the Glasma might explain generic features of such production.

The Mixed Phase Collision Energy Range from the Experimental Data

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2319 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2319

article page: 2319 (contains 10 pages) •


Experimental results on collision energy dependence of relevant hadron production properties are discussed. It is argued that the mixed phase consisting of confined and deconfined matter is created in central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions between \(\approx 8\) and \(\approx 12\) GeV center-of-mass energy of a nucleon–nucleon pair.

Basic Phenomenology for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2329 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2329

article page: 2329 (contains 25 pages) •


Basic concepts used to interpret the soft-hadronic data collected in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed at the elementary level.

Anisotropic Hydrodynamics: Three Lectures

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2355 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2355

article page: 2355 (contains 39 pages) •


Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a non-perturbative reorganization of relativistic hydrodynamics that takes into account the large momentum-space anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. As a result, it allows one to extend the regime of applicability of hydrodynamic treatments to situations that can be quite far from isotropic thermal equilibrium. In this paper, I review the material presented in a series of three introductory lectures. I review the derivation of ideal and second-order viscous hydrodynamics from kinetic theory. I then show how to extend the methods used to a system that can be highly anisotropic in local-rest-frame momenta. I close by discussing recent work on this topic and then present an outlook to the future.

Measuring the Size and Dynamics of Heavy Ion Collisions with Femtoscopy

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2395 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2395

article page: 2395 (contains 11 pages) •


Femtoscopy is a measurement technique used in high energy collisions of hadrons and heavy ions in order to probe their space-time structure and dynamics. It relies on mutual two-particle correlations to extract the size of the region emitting particles. In this paper, we present the theoretical formalism of the method and discuss features observed in the experimental data and their interpretation in hydrodynamic models.

Quark–Hadron Duality at Finite Temperature

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2407 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2407

article page: 2407 (contains 47 pages) •


At low temperatures, we expect that all QCD observables are defined in terms of hadrons. This includes the partition function as well as the Polyakov loop in all representations. We analyze the physics underlying a microscopic derivation of the hadron resonance gas.

Aspects of Anomalous Glue

Acta Phys. Pol. B 45, 2455 (2014)

DOI: 10.5506/APhysPolB.45.2455

article page: 2455 (contains 18 pages) •


Non-perturbative glue associated with gluon topology plays a vital role in determining the mass of the \(\eta '\) meson. We give an introduction to axial U(1) physics and explain how this non-perturbative glue also contributes to \(\eta '\) interactions with other hadrons. We concentrate on resonant \(\eta ' \pi \) production in partial waves with exotic quantum numbers not compatible with a quark–antiquark state and on the \(\eta '\) in nuclear media where there are new results from the COMPASS and CBELSA/TAPS experiments, respectively.


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