Proceedings Series

Vol. 13 (2020), No. 4, pp. 577 – 983

45\(^\mathrm {th}\) Congress of Polish Physicists

Welcome Address




Predicting Market Trends by Means of Agent-based Models

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 597 (2020)

page 597 •


Financial markets are examples of complex systems being driven by both endogenous processes as well as exogenous shocks. One can obtain insight into the dynamics of those systems by assuming market participants (agents) belonging to particular groups and being characterized by a particular demand and supply functions. The agents themselves are likely to switch to a different group under persuasion of their peers (herding behavior). The mathematical description of this phenomenon in terms of a non-trivial Markov model, combined with the clearing of the market by a market maker provides analytical results for the probability distribution of the asset prices and returns. That in turn allows for trading strategies to be designed and implemented in real life. In the course of the article, I will review several agent-based models as well as mention the practicalities of quantitative trading.

all authors

J. Golak, H. Witała, R. Skibiński, K. Topolnicki, Y. Volkotrub, A. Grassi, V. Soloviov, V. Urbanevych, H. Kamada

Theoretical Investigations of Three-nucleon Systems

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 609 (2020)

page 609 •


We present selected results of theoretical investigations of three-nucleon systems which have been pursued in Kraków for more than thirty years. The Kraków–Bochum group has gathered a lot of experience related to investigations of elastic nucleon–deuteron scattering and nucleon-induced deuteron breakup processes. These investigations are based on rigorous solutions of the 3N Faddeev equations in momentum space and aim to understand the properties of two- and three-nucleon forces. Since the late 1980s, very many different models of nuclear potentials, including several generations of the forces derived within chiral effective field theory, have been put to stringent tests. Beside pure three-nucleon reactions, our Faddeev framework has been used to describe many electroweak processes, where the initial-state or final-state interactions among three-nucleons are very important. Our theoretical results need to be confronted with precision experimental data, so collaboration with many experimental groups all over the world is crucial for our research.

Geometry and Dynamics of Heavy-ion Collisions Measured by a Femtoscopy Method

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 619 (2020)

page 619 •


Geometrical and dynamical properties of the source created as a result of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at high energies can be accessed through the method of femtoscopy. Correlations of two particles at small relative momentum are sensitive to the effects of Quantum Statistics and of the Final State Interactions. They enable to explore space-time properties of the source (the order of \(10^{-15}\) m and \(10^{-23}\) s, respectively). Meson–meson correlations are the most commonly studied, and baryon–baryon pairs together with two-meson and meson–baryon correlations provide complete information about source parameters. Measurements of nonidentical particles complement our understanding of space-time asymmetries in the emission process. In this paper, the STAR results including systems of protons, pions and kaons produced in Au+Au collisions are shown.

all authors

A. Marcinek, A. Rybicki, A. Szczurek, M. Kiełbowicz, S. Bhosale, V. Ozvenchuk

Recent Results on Spectator-induced Electromagnetic Effects in Ultrarelativistic Light- and Heavy-ion Collisions

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 625 (2020)

page 625 •


We review our studies of spectator-induced electromagnetic (EM) effects on charged pion emission. For heavy-ion Pb+Pb and Au+Au reactions, we formulate a model which associates the size of EM effect with the space-time properties of the system of hot and dense matter formed in the collision. The first observation of the spectator-induced EM distortion of the \(\pi ^+/\pi ^-\) ratio in small systems at the CERN SPS allows the extension of our study to Ar+Sc collisions at \(\sqrt {s_{NN}}=17.3\) GeV. We improve our model description to take into account spectator fragmentation as well as the possible influence of the net positive participant charge close to the spectator system. This brings new information on the space-time evolution of pion production in small systems, and on the other hand, allows us to study the interplay between spectator fragmentation and electromagnetic phenomena also in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. A consistent picture of the space-time evolution of all the studied systems emerges, where the longitudinal evolution of the hot and dense matter created in the participant zone results in faster pions being produced closer to the spectator system.

all authors

K. Schmidt, X.G. Cao, J.B. Natowitz, M. Barbui, K. Hagel, M.R.D. Rodrigues, R. Wada, J. Gauthier, S. Wuenschel

Reactions with \(\alpha \)-conjugate Nuclei — Results and Perspectives

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 631 (2020)

page 631 •


In this paper, we report on some results for study of the decay of hot \(^{28}\)Si in \(^{28}{\mathrm {Si}} + ^{12}\)C and \(^{40}\)Ca in \(^{40}{\mathrm {Ca}} + ^{40}\)Ca reactions at 35 MeV/nucleon. The selection of projectile fragments and statistical test revealed that there are important dynamic effects in mid-peripheral and central reactions at 35 MeV/nucleon. Further investigation of the \(\alpha \)-conjugate nuclei decay have been initiated, including the study of density and temperatures.

Searching for the Critical Point of Strongly Interacting Matter in Nucleus–Nucleus Collisions at CERN SPS

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 637 (2020)

page 637 •


The search for experimental signatures of the critical point (CP) of strongly interacting matter is one of the main objectives of the NA61/ SHINE experiment at CERN SPS. In the course of the experiment, a beam momentum and system size scan is performed. Local proton density fluctuations in transverse momentum space represent an order parameter of the chiral phase transition and are expected to scale according to a universal power-law in the vicinity of the CP; we probe their behavior through an intermittency analysis of the proton second scaled factorial moments (SSFMs) in transverse momentum space. Previous such analyses revealed power-law behavior in NA49 Si\(+\)Si collisions at 158\(A\) GeV/\(c\), with no intermittency observed in lighter or heavier NA49 and NA61/SHINE systems at the same energy. We now extend the analysis to NA61/SHINE Ar\(+\)Sc collisions at 150\(A\) GeV/\(c\), similar in size and baryochemical potential to NA49 Si\(+\)Si. We employ statistical techniques to subtract non-critical background and estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties. Subsequently, we use Monte Carlo simulations to assess the statistical significance of the observed intermittency effect.

all authors

W. Płaczek, A. Abramov, S.E. Alden, R. Alemany Fernandez, P.S. Antsiferov, A. Apyan, H. Bartosik, E.G. Bessonov, N. Biancacci, J. Bieroń, A. Bogacz, A. Bosco, R. Bruce, D. Budker, K. Cassou, F. Castelli, I. Chaikovska, C. Curatolo, P. Czodrowski, A. Derevianko, K. Dupraz, Y. Dutheil, K. Dzierżęga, V. Fedosseev, N. Fuster Martinez, S.M. Gibson, B. Goddard, A. Gorzawski, S. Hirlander, J.M. Jowett, R. Kersevan, M. Kowalska, M.W. Krasny, F. Kroeger, D. Kuchler, M. Lamont, T. Lefevre, D. Manglunki, B. Marsh, A. Martens, J. Molson, D. Nutarelli, L.J. Nevay, A. Petrenko, V. Petrillo, S. Redaelli, Y. Peinaud, S. Pustelny, S. Rochester, M. Sapinski, M. Schaumann, R. Scrivens, L. Serafini, V.P. Shevelko, T. Stoehlker, A. Surzhykov, I. Tolstikhina, F. Velotti, G. Weber, Y.K. Wu, C. Yin-Vallgren, M. Zanetti, F. Zimmermann, M.S. Zolotorev, F. Zomer

The Gamma Factory Project at CERN: a New Generation of Research Tools Made of Light

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 645 (2020)

page 645 •


The Gamma Factory project offers the possibility of creating novel research tools by producing relativistic beams of highly ionised atoms in CERN’s accelerator complex and exciting their atomic degrees of freedom by lasers to produce strongly collimated high-energy photon beams. Intensity of such beams would exceed by several orders of magnitude the ones offered by the presently operating light sources, in the particularly interesting energy domain from about 100 keV to above 400 MeV. In this energy regime, the high-intensity photon beams can be used to produce secondary beams of polarised electrons, polarised positrons, polarised muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions. New research opportunities in many domains of physics, from particle physics through nuclear physics to atomic physics, can be opened by the Gamma Factory scientific programme based on the above primary and secondary beams. Except for basic research, it offers also a possibility for various application studies, e.g. in medical physics and nuclear power.

Impact of the Underlying \(O(4)\) Criticality on Net-proton Number Fluctuations

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 653 (2020)

page 653 •


We discuss the beam-energy dependence of ratios of the first four cumulants of the net-proton number, calculated using a phenomenologically motivated model in which critical mode fluctuations couple to protons and anti-protons. The model takes into account an impact of the underlying \(O(4)\) criticality on the QCD phase diagram in the presence of a \(Z(2)\) critical point. This allows us to capture qualitatively both the monotonic behavior of the lowest-order ratio and the non-monotonic behavior of higher-order ratios which are seen in the experimental data from the STAR Collaboration. We also discuss the dependence of our results on the coupling strength between the critical mode and the protons as well as the location of the critical point.

Comments on Rapidity Distributions of Pions in \(p+p\) and Pb+Pb Collisions at CERN SPS Energies

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 659 (2020)

page 659 •


This paper presents a set of comments on a specific model of the initial longitudinal evolution of the system created in the collision of two ultrarelativistic nuclei, as well as on its relation to interactions of single nucleons at the same collision energy. The model, largely based on pure local energy and momentum conservation in the initial stage of the collision, recently served to understand the centrality and energy dependence of rapidity distributions of \(\pi \) mesons (pions) in Pb\(+\)Pb reactions in the energy regime of the CERN SPS accelerator. Additionally, with no tuning nor adjustment to the experimental data, the rapidity distribution of pions produced by the “fire-streak fragmentation function” implemented in the model reproduced the experimental pion rapidity distribution in nucleon–nucleon interactions. The apparent difference in the absolute normalization was explained by the difference in the overall energy balance in the two reactions, resulting from the known effects.

Theory and Phenomenology of Transverse Momentum Dependent Gluon Distributions in High Energy Processes

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 667 (2020)

page 667 •


We overview selected aspects of Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) gluon distributions in the high-energy limit. In particular, we discuss a suitable factorization formalism that allows to obtain phenomenological results for forward jet production processes at the LHC.

What Can We Learn About Quarks, Gluons and Proton’s Internal Structure from Supercomputer Simulations?

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 673 (2020)

page 673 •


In this paper, I discuss contemporary research on constituents of the nucleon, making up atomic nuclei and giving mass to almost entire visible matter. These constituents, quarks and gluons, interact strongly and this interaction is described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), one of the pillars of the Standard Model of elementary particles. QCD is much more complicated than e.g. , quantum electrodynamics and several aspects can be investigated from first principles only via numerical calculations, by formulating it on a discretized spacetime grid, the lattice. The huge complexity of the problem causes it to require advanced tools and computing power offered by the world’s most powerful supercomputers. I discuss how QCD is formulated on the lattice such that it can be tackled on such machines, what we have learned so far and what are the directions of on-going and future research on nucleon structure from the lattice QCD.

Azimuthal Anisotropy in Heavy-ion Collisions with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 687 (2020)

page 687 •


The high-statistics experimental data collected by the ATLAS experiment during the 2015 Pb\(+\)Pb and 2017 Xe\(+\)Xe LHC runs are used to measure charged particle azimuthal anisotropy. ATLAS measurements of differential and global Fourier harmonics of charged particles (\(\nu _n\)) in 5.02 TeV Pb\(+\)Pb and 5.44 TeV collisions in a wide range of transverse momenta (up to 60 GeV), pseudorapidity (\(|\eta |\lt 2.5\)) and collision centrality (0–80%) are presented. The higher order harmonics, sensitive to fluctuations in the initial state, are measured up to \(n=7\) using the two-particle correlation, cumulant and scalar-product methods. The dynamic properties of the QGP are studied using a modified Pearson’s correlation coefficient, \(\rho (\nu _{n},p_{\mathrm {T}}\)), between the eventwise mean transverse momentum and the magnitude of the flow vector in 5.02 TeV Pb\(+\)Pb and \(p+\)Pb collisions. The flow results allow to improve the understanding of initial conditions of nuclear collisions, hydrodynamical behaviour of Quark–Gluon Plasma and parton energy loss.

Recent Advances in the Color Glass Condensate

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 695 (2020)

page 695 •


High-energy hadronic collisions have been one of the most appealing but also challenging problems in physics for many years. With the advancements in high-energy colliders over the last three decades, hadronic collisions are at the focus of both experimental and theoretical studies. The Color Glass Condensate (CGC) is the effective theory to study high-energy hadronic interactions such as proton–nucleus (\(pA\)) and proton–proton (\(pp\)) collisions. I will discuss the latest developments in the theoretical CGC framework and show that one can describe certain high-energy experimental data by employing these new techniques.

Chiral Mixing in Dense QCD Matter

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 701 (2020)

page 701 •


We study the vector spectral function in the presence of the chiral mixing induced by finite baryon density. The transverse polarizations receive a direct modification from the mixing, so that the entire spectral function is deformed drastically at high density. This becomes significantly pronounced when the mass difference between parity partners decreases. The resultant enhancement in the production rates of dileptons serves as an excellent signature of the partially-restored chiral symmetry to be verified in heavy-ion collisions.

X-ray Structural Studies of Liquids and Their Solutions

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 709 (2020)

page 709 •


The method of analysis of experimental intensity distribution curve of X-ray scattered radiation is presented on the example of liquid 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene C\(_6\)H\(_3\)(C\(_6\)H\(_5\))\(_3\). The experimental curve obtained for 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene was normalized with respect to two theoretical curves of radiation intensity distribution derived for two different models of the molecule. The curve of reduced radiation intensity was analysed by the reduction method. In the present study, we conducted X-ray diffraction experiments for the first time on 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, in combination with the method of Blum and Narten. The mean amplitudes of vibration were studied in detail. For the first time, the theoretically predicted model of the 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene structure was experimentally confirmed. The structural data obtainable by X-ray analysis for the studied liquid were discussed. Conclusions concerning the most correct interpretation of experimental data were pointed out.

How to Solve Fractional Differential Equations Describing Subdiffiusion in Layered Media

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 717 (2020)

page 717 •


We consider subdiffusion in a system which consists of two different media joined together. The media can be separated by a thin partially permeable membrane. Subdiffusion is described by partial differential equations with the time derivative of fractional order. We present the procedure of solving subdiffusion equations for two-layer system. The procedure can be generalized into a multi-layered system.

Non-equilibrium Effects in the Evolution of Dark Matter

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 725 (2020)

page 725 •


Among viable dark matter production mechanisms, the thermal freeze-out stands out as the most natural and best motivated one. In the usual theoretical calculations of thermal relic abundance, the assumption of local thermal equilibrium is made. Is this assumption always justified? We discuss more accurate treatments, one relying on the inclusion of higher moments of the Boltzmann equation and the second on solving the evolution of the phase-space distribution function fully numerically.

Forbidden Freeze-in

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 733 (2020)

page 733 •


We study and point out the importance of a frozen-in dark matter production regime via kinematically forbidden decays that arises from the development of thermal masses of plasma particles.

Causal Dynamical Triangulations on a Torus

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 739 (2020)

page 739 •


Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) is a non-perturbative lattice approach to quantum gravity where one assumes space-time foliation into spatial hyper-surfaces of fixed topology. Most of the previous studies of CDT were done for the fixed spatial topology of the 3-sphere. We present recent results for the fixed spatial topology of the 3-torus. We argue that the topology change does neither affect the phase structure nor the order of the phase transitions. Thus, the CDT properties seem to be universal, independently of the spatial topology choice.

On Relations Between Elliptic and Elementary Functions

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 745 (2020)

page 745 •


V.I. Arnold suggested that an elliptic Weierstrass function cannot be reduced to an elementary one. We prove this conjecture by demonstration that the Weierstrass \(\wp \)-function cannot be homeomorphically transformed to any elementary function. This implies the general observation that the physical world cannot be described only by elementary functions up to appropriate coordinate transformations.

Characteristics of Natural Radioactivity at the Reiche Zeche Mine, Germany

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 753 (2020)

page 753 •


Determination of the natural radiation background in underground localizations is necessary to describe them for possible use not only for physics experiments. The characteristics of natural radioactivity at the Reiche Zeche mine is presented and contains results from in-situ measurements, radon concentration in air, and \(\alpha /\beta \) laboratory analyses of water and rock samples from the investigated localization. The measurements were performed in the Research and Education Mine “Reiche Zeche”, Germany at the depth of 150 m (410 m w.e.).

From Materials Investigation to Non-invasive Diabetes Diagnosis

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 759 (2020)

page 759 •


The paper presents some investigation on material properties which are candidates for a gas sensor. The best choice was semiconducting oxides such as WO\(_{3}\), CuO, SnO\(_{2}\), TiO\(_{2}\). The materials properties were optimized to obtain the most sensitive gas sensor. Gas sensor matrix was used to build portable device for non-invasive diabetes diagnosis. The design of measuring device for glucose level in blood from the exhaled air gas content is presented. The components of device such as gas preconcentrator, gas sensor, integrated gas sensor matrix and a measuring method are described. The advantages of such a device were presented for portable, personal model as well as a hospital once.

Project of the Tungsten Coil Cooled with Liquid Helium for Producing Homogenous High Magnetic Fields

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 771 (2020)

page 771 •


This article contains description of the coil for producing high magnetic fields which may be used in scientific research and technology. Two innovative solutions are applied in the project. The first innovation is a shape of the coil. In result, its effective magnetic field is produced in a cylindrical recess located eccentrically inside the coil. Winding of the coil consisted of wires parallel to the cylinder and axes protruding out of the device. The second innovation is the tungsten winding and cooling with liquid helium. The spatial distribution of the magnetic field induction produced by the coil is estimated. Electric power necessary for the coil to operate is also calculated. The advantages of the coil are possible production of a high and homogeneous magnetic field and reduction of supply power.

An Application of Functional Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Optimization of fMRI and rsfMRI Studies

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 783 (2020)

page 783 •


Novel functional magnetic resonance techniques based on variation of the blood-oxygenated-level-dependent (BOLD) signal during the performance of a task or in response to a stimulus (fMRI) as well as at the rest (rsfMRI) are compared. These techniques play a significant role in the investigation of functional architecture of the brain. There is a good overlap between the areas of fMRI activation elicited by motor, language, visual or other task studies and the corresponding rsfMRI networks (RSNs). Progress in statistical approaches for processing is presented particularly for rsfMRI data. Both fMRI techniques as completely non-invasive can be successfully used in medical diagnostics and neurosurgery. In recent years, research has focused on the rsfMRI technique since it represents a promising and cost-effective alternative to task-based fMRI for scientific needs as well as for medical applications.

Validating the Potential-usefulness ofthe ArcCHECK\(^{\circledR }\) Detector to Verify Planned Brachytherapy Treatment

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 795 (2020)

page 795 •


Planned treatment verification procedures were created to ensure safety and effectiveness of radiotherapy. In brachytherapy, however, the verification procedure is methodologically complicated due to difficulties in measuring dose distribution around a radiation source placed inside the irradiated object. To address this problem, particularly as more complicate brachytherapy procedures are contemplated, we attempted to validate the potential usefulness of ArcCHECK\(^{\circledR }\) detector for direct verification of a brachytherapy treatment plan. A simple treatment plan was created for a specially-designed phantom which produced 2D dose distribution map on the phantom’s surface. As a result, 2D map of dose distribution on phantom’s surface. Subsequently, a Monte Carlo simulation of the experimental treatment plan was performed for comparison with measured data. This simulation used the EGS_brachy module, which is a part of the EGS_nrc Monte Carlo code. Measuring dose distribution using ArcCHECK\(^{\circledR }\) was a first step in a validation procedure. Next steps will include comparisons of measurement results with data exported from the treatment planning system (TPS), a further Monte Carlo Simulation and radiochromic film. The measurement described here provided qualitative indication of potential effectiveness of presented approach. Combined comparisons of ArcCHECK\(^{\circledR }\) measurement with other methods of validation of dose distribution should provide sufficient grounds to assess the device’s value in verification procedure.

Version corrected according to Erratum Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 14, 473 (2021)

Polish Input to Beam Dynamic Research for a Superconductive Linear Accelerator in the Early Neutron Source Project

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 801 (2020)

page 801 •


DONES, which is a deuteron–lithium source of high-energy neutrons, has been designed to test materials for a proposed fusion reactor. DONES will produce a 125 mA deuteron beam, which will be accelerated to 40 MeV energy and will hit a liquid lithium curtain, causing intensive neutron production, sufficient to simulate neutron radiation in fusion reactor. Those neutrons enable experimental probes of materials in a test cell. The general aim of our research was superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator optimization. The specific aim of our calculations was to find phase values for each accelerating cavity separately, and to achieve a deuteron beam that matched each of two criteria simultaneously: the energy of the beam had to reach at least 40 MeV at the end of the accelerator, and energy losses of the beam have to be less than 1 W/m (in the 1-meter section where losses were the highest). A further complication occurred when changes in the accelerator design were made during the course of our research. The first change was the redesigning of existing criomodules and addition of one more criomodule. The second change was an extension of the spaces between criomodules. We found proper optimisation after the first change, however, our optimisation before the change was not sufficient. We are working on optimisation after the last design modification.

New International System of Units, SI

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 807 (2020)

page 807 •


On November \(16^{\mathrm {th}}\), 2018, during the \(26^{\mathrm {th}}\) meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in Versailles, the new International System of Units, SI, was approved. In the new system, all seven units of measurement are defined by universal constants making the system independent of the properties of materials, as well as the place and time of the individual units realization. The four basic units — kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole — were re-defined in terms of the following physical constants: the Planck constant \(h\), the elementary charge \(e\), the Boltzmann constant \(k\) and the Avogadro constant \(N_{\mathrm {A}}\), respectively. In the present paper, a brief history of system of units is presented, and information on the activity of scientists and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures that led to the re-definition of the system is provided.

The Dynamics of Walking

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 815 (2020)

page 815 •


What makes us walk? When we go at a constant speed, things seem simple, the forces acting on the walking man are balanced — hence the uniform motion. But is it really uniform? What role do the forces at the contact point between a foot and the ground play in a human walking? Can you explain the mechanism of human movement based on school physics? From what moment do we describe approximations of factual errors when describing motion? Two tools were used to analyze the movement of the walking man: a video analysis software — Tracker and a smartphone application — Phyphox. Every move was recorded using at the same time both techniques. This method allows a qualitative analysis of the movement of a walking person, using an equipment available to an average student.

Statistical Properties of Tonal and Atonal Pieces of Music

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 823 (2020)

page 823 •


Two pieces of music: Allemende from Partita in A minor by J.S. Bach and Syrinx by C. Debussy are studied as time series of pitches, intervals and note’s duration times to reveal possible differences between tonal and atonal composition. Two statistical methods are used (i) occurrence frequency versus rank in the frequency table and (ii) time dependence of correlation functions. Deviations from the Zipf law towards a knee-like log–log plot instead of a straight line are noticed. A more white-noise tendency of the tonal piece results from the tune based on broken chords. The most significant signature of tonality turned out to be a deviation from the stationarity of the process. This indicates that the clear caesuras inherent to tonality are reflected in difference in the power spectrum of the process as compared to its autocorrelation function.

Flavor-dependent Transport Parameters of the Quark–Gluon Plasma Within the Quasiparticle Model

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 829 (2020)

page 829 •


We study the transport properties of the deconfined QCD matter in pure SU(3) theory and full QCD with light and strange quark flavors. Applying the quasiparticle model to shear and bulk viscosities, as well as to electrical conductivity, we analyze flavor and temperature dependence of these parameters. The analytic expressions of the examined quantities are derived from the kinetic theory under the relaxation time approximation.

Analysis of the \(pd \to pd\pi ^{0}\) Reaction Measured with WASA-at-COSY Facility in Order to Search for \(\eta \)-mesic Helium

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 835 (2020)

page 835 •


In this report, we briefly present the preliminary results of the search for \(^{3}\)He–\(\eta \) bound system in \(pd \to pd\pi ^{0}\) reaction.

all authors

A. Grassi, J. Golak, R. Skibiński, K. Topolnicki, H. Witała, H. Kamada, L.E. Marcucci

Response Functions and Differential Cross Sections for Neutrino Scattering off \(^2\)H

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 841 (2020)

page 841 •


The need of a better understanding of the weak interaction and the electro-weak unification triggered in the last decades an interest in neutrino scattering off nuclei. Here, we present a study on neutrino-induced reactions off \(^2\)H. The cross sections are calculated via the nuclear response functions, which contain the information about the nuclear structure and interactions.

all authors

V. Soloviov, J. Golak, R. Skibiński, K. Topolnicki, Y. Volkotrub, H. Witała

The Differential Cross Section and the Nucleon Analysing Power for the \(n(d,nn)p\) Process at 65 MeV as Tools to Improve the JISP16 Potential

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 845 (2020)

page 845 •


The JISP16 nucleon–nucleon potential is applied to investigate the nucleon-induced deuteron breakup reaction at energy \(E=65\) MeV. We use the formalism of the Faddeev equation to compute the differential cross section and the nucleon analyzing power. Our study reveals that this force delivers, in general, a qualitatively similar description of the exclusive cross section and the analyzing power for the studied reaction to the one based on the standard realistic nucleon–nucleon AV18 interaction. However, in some regions of the phase space the predictions for the differential cross sections based on the JISP16 and on the AV18 forces differ by more than 50% at \(E=65\) MeV. Similar differences are observed for the nucleon analyzing power. Such specific parts of the phase space can be used to fine-tune the JISP16 potential parameters.

all authors

N. Cichocka, S. Kobyakov, J. Kaszewski, R. Minikayev, B. Witkowski, A. Kamińska

Crystallization of YAlO\(_3\) Perovskite Using Microwave Hydrothermal Technique

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 851 (2020)

page 851 •


Perovskites, garnets, monoclinic forms, and lately also oxyhydroxides doped with rare earth ions have drawn large attention due to their beneficial photovoltaic properties. In this work, ceramic nanopowders of YAP doped with europium were synthesized using microwave-driven hydrothermal technique with different pH and post-growth treatment. The structure as well as optical properties of the materials were investigated as a function of hydrothermal crystallization conditions. For this purpose, the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the photoluminescence studies of these materials were performed. Optical properties of the nanoparticles in relation with their structure and chemical composition are discussed.

all authors

K. Krutul, P.J. Napiorkowski, K. Hadyńska-Klęk, K. Wrzosek-Lipska, M. Komorowska, M. Paluch-Ferszt, Z. Szefliński, P. Horodek, A. Olejniczak, V.A. Skuratov

Radiation Hardness Studies of PIN-diode Detectors Irradiated with Heavy Ions

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 861 (2020)

page 861 •


Evaluation of the properties of a set of PIN-diode-type semiconductor detectors was performed at the Heavy Ion Laboratory University of Warsaw in Poland with the \(\alpha \) particles from \(^{241}\)Am. In order to monitor the radiation damage process in a controlled conditions, the in-beam irradiation experiments were performed using heavy-ion beams: \(^{12}\)C and \(^{20}\)Ne at HIL in Warsaw, and \(^{132}\)Xe at JINR in Dubna. The properties of the irradiated PIN-diode detectors were tested using the positron annihilation spectroscopy. The preliminary results of the experiments are presented.

all authors

B. Kiełtyka, K. Rawojć, R. Kopeć, J. Stanek, A. Truszkiewicz, K. Kisielewicz

Dose Verification in Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer Patients with Hip Prosthesis

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 869 (2020)

page 869 •


The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate radiation dose given to the patient, when they receive RT in the pelvic region and have hip prosthesis. All experiments were performed in the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Institute in Kraków. We used linac accelerators with the nominal energy of 6 MeV and 18 MeV in volumetric modulated arc therapy technique (VMAT). The treatment plans were calculated in the TPS with the application of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). The goal of this study was to achieve a clinically acceptable dose distribution for PTV treated to 63 Gy (21 fx), so at least 98% of the PTV volume was covered with 95% isodose, with the maximum dose fixed on less than 107% of prescribed dose. Absorbed doses were evaluated by using thermoluminescent detectors. For lower energies, TPS overestimates the dose at the interface of significantly different density, while in the case of higher energies (18 MeV), the dose was underestimated. This underestimation, according to experimental data obtained previously, may reach, in the VMAT rotational dynamic technique, up to 13% in relation to data from TPS. Therefore, with the increasing number of patients with hip prosthesis treated for i.e. prostate cancer, it becomes crucial to carefully monitor the real doses and to keep doses below the risk limit.

Transverse-momentum Spectra of Hadrons in \(p+p\) Collisions at CERN SPS Energies from the UrQMD Transport Model

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 877 (2020)

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The UrQMD transport model, version 3.4, is used to study the new experimental data on total yields, rapidity distributions and transverse-momentum spectra of \(\pi ^{\pm }\) and \(K^{\pm }\) produced in inelastic \(p+p\) interactions at SPS energies, recently published by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration. The comparison of model predictions to these new measurements is presented as a function of collision energy for central and forward particle rapidity intervals. In addition, the inverse slope parameters characterising the transverse-momentum distributions are extracted from the predicted spectra and compared to corresponding values obtained from experimental distributions, as a function of particle rapidity and collision energy. A complex pattern of deviations between the experimental data and the UrQMD model emerges. We conclude that new experimental data at SPS energies still constitute a challenge for specific transport models, at least as far as the present version of the UrQMD code is concerned.

Overview of Microelectronic Circuits Designed at AGH University for the CBM Experiment

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 885 (2020)

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This paper briefly summarizes the development and research work conducted at the AGH University contributing to the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany since 2009. The need for microelectronic solutions enabling acquisition of data from the detector layers in the experiment led to the development of five small and two full-size prototype integrated circuits supporting the development of final multichannel integrated circuit SMX2.2 which will be used to build the Silicon Tracking System (STS) and Muon Chamber (MuCh) detectors. The aim of the read-out circuits is to aggregate the charge generated in the detectors, amplify and filter this signal and digitize the amount of generated charge and assign a timestamp to each event. The self-triggered, data-driven approach of hit data generation is implemented in this experiment. Overview of pre-studies of the Time-over-Threshold charge processing technique, shaper-based two path pulse processing, leakage current analysis and cancellation techniques are briefly summarized in this paper and referenced to the full papers on each of the presented topics. All the presented integrated circuits were fabricated using UMC 180 nm CMOS process.

Comparison Between Data from Ultrarelativistic Heavy-ion Collisions and a Geometrical Model Based on Local Energy and Momentum Conservation

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 893 (2020)

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During ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, an extraordinary state of matter, the Quark–Gluon Plasma, is produced. The main aim of this work was to investigate the properties of a new model of the nucleus+nucleus collisions at high energy, and its applicability. This model, called further “the fire-streak model”, is based on the geometry of the collision and local energy and momentum conservation. The reactions studied so far are the Pb\(+\)Pb collisions at \(\sqrt {s_{\mathrm {NN}}}= 17.3\) GeV and \(\sqrt {s_{\mathrm {NN}}}= 8.8\) GeV. Comparing results from the model to experimental data collected by the NA49 experiment at the CERN SPS, we obtain a good agreement. The second main subject of the investigation was the application of the model to the nucleon\(+\)nucleon (\(N+N\)) collisions and the relation between the Pb\(+\)Pb and \(N+N\) collisions (experimental data were collected by NA49 as well as NA61/SHINE) at the same energy. Obtained results show that if we consider the change in the overall energy balance between the Pb\(+\)Pb and the \(N+N\) system (included by baryon stopping and strangeness enhancement), it is possible to extend our approach to \(N+N\) reactions.

Studies of Volatile Organic Compounds Emission from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria ananassa Using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 899 (2020)

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Volatile organic compounds emission from wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca) and garden strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) were studied using the Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). The samples of wild and garden strawberries were picked from the different regions in Poland (Pomerania and Mazovia). Mass spectra for all studied samples are presented in this work. Some organic compounds were identified based on the obtained spectra for samples of Fragaria vesca and Fragaria ananassa from different regions. Some differences between the mass spectra were found and discussed in the work.

Adiabatic Quantum Pumping in Buckled Graphene Nanoribbon Driven by a Kink

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 907 (2020)

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We propose a new type of quantum pump in buckled graphene nanoribbon, adiabatically driven by a kink moving along the ribbon. From a practical point of view, pumps with moving scatterers present advantages as compared to gate-driven pumps, like enhanced charge transfer per cycle per channel. The kink geometry is simplified by truncating the spatial arrangement of carbon atoms with the classical \(\phi ^4\) model solution, including a width renormalization following from the Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model for carbon nanostructures. We demonstrate numerically, as a proof of concept, that for moderate deformations, a stationary kink at the ribbon center may block the current driven by the external voltage bias. In the absence of a bias, a moving kink leads to a highly-effective pump effect, with a charge per unit cycle dependent on the gate voltage.

Effects of Disorder on the Density of States in Magic Angle Twisted Bilayer Graphene

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 915 (2020)

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This work presents results of numerical simulations of the density of states of a finite twisted bilayer graphene system twisted by different angles, and shows the relation between the twist angle and the position of the peaks in the density of states. Further analysis considers how adding the Anderson-like disorder affects this system. Demonstrated results correspond to disorder strengths in the range of 100 meV–500 meV and their influence on the peaks in the density of states.

Comparison Between ERP (sLORETA) and fMRI of Somatosensory Cortex for Healthy Group

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 923 (2020)

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The purpose of this paper is to present event-related potential (ERP) measurements during visual language processing experiment and comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as compare brain activity and estimate the diagnostic value. sLORETA (standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) was chosen to compute current source densities because it can lead to the same type of mapping activity as fMRI, which was used as a reference method for imaging of somatosensory areas. Research focused on selected paradigms which was finger movement for healthy group. Exogenous potentials and associated endogenous potentials were analyzed, taking into account the phenomenon of lateralization and showing the impact of parameters in SPM in the area of somatosensory cortex of fMRI study.

Boost-invariant Description of Polarization Within Hydrodynamics with Spin

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 931 (2020)

page 931 •


We briefly review a recently proposed formalism of perfect-fluid hydrodynamics with spin, which is a generalization of the standard hydrodynamic framework and provides a natural tool for describing the evolution of spin-polarized systems of particles with spin \(\onehalf \). It is based on the de Groot– van Leeuwen–van Weert forms of energy-momentum and spin tensors, and conservation laws. Using Bjorken symmetry, we show how this formalism may be used to determine observables describing the polarization of particles measured in the experiment.

Computer-aided Experiments in Student Physics Laboratory

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 937 (2020)

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The need to use computer-aided experiments in the physics teaching process was discussed and justified. The benefits of using computer-aided measuring methods have been shown. The application of selected measuring consoles equipped with sensors and coupled with a computer in the process of performing and analyzing the results of experiments was shown. The results of three computer-aided experiments were presented in which the electromotive force and internal resistance of the battery, hysteresis loop and the Dulong–Petit law were determined.

\(^{117m}\)Sn — the Promising Radioisotope for Use in Nuclear Medicine

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 943 (2020)

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This review paper is dedicated to ways of production and medical applications of the tin isomer \(^{117m}\)Sn in the context of its wider use in nuclear medicine, particularly, in diagnostics. Until now, \(^{117m}\)Sn has been used as an effective agent for the palliation of pain from bone metastases. However, the energy of gamma-rays emitted by \(^{117m}\)Sn is optimal for scintigraphy and, moreover, this tin isomer can also be connected to many different ligands. Tin-117m can be effectively produced in many nuclear reactions without the use of research reactors, which is a very big advantage particularly in the light of the perceptible crisis in the production of technetium-99m.

The Application of Chiral Forces to the Deuteron Photodisintegration Process at \(E_\gamma =140\) MeV

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 949 (2020)

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We discuss an application of the nucleon–nucleon chiral potential with the semi-local regularization in momentum space to the deuteron photodisintegration process at the photon energy \(E_\gamma =140\) MeV. We test this new interaction model by comparing results for the differential cross section with data, checking convergence of predictions with respect to the order of chiral expansion and by estimating various theoretical uncertainties. We find that the investigated interaction is promising, however electromagnetic current consistent with the interaction is necessary to describe the data precisely.

The Usefulness of MRI in Assessing Brain Atrophy for People Suffer from Multiple Sclerosis

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 955 (2020)

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Nowadays, volumetric and morphometric (VBM) techniques based on MRI data play a significant role in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to present the influence of age and gender on brain atrophy in patients ail to the most common demyelinating disease — multiple sclerosis (MS) — in the group of between 20–60-year-olds not treated with any disease-modifying drugs using VBM methods. MRI data of 31 patients obtained during the routine clinical work by MAGNETOM Aera 1.5T scanner were analysed. The faster decline of brain parenchymal fraction with age was observed in men than in women. VBM results showed that grey matter loss in significant regions of the brain such as visual cortex, SMA, caudate nucleus and the accumulation of damages can lead to the disability of patients.

Graphite-like Structures, Synthesized from Gaseous He Under High Pressure, by Braking \(\gamma \) Irradiation of Maximum Energy of 10 MeV — Modeling of the Process

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 961 (2020)

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After irradiation of dense gas helium by braking gamma quanta with maximum energy of 10 MeV, in sufficiently long time, a graphite-like — large dimensions — structures were synthesized. Their chemical composition and main physical properties were definite. In order to explain the observed phenomena, a specific method of LENR — multinuclear reactions in dense helium — was used.

Correlations Among Two-nucleon Scattering Observables

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 971 (2020)

page 971 •


We use a covariance matrix of nucleon–nucleon (NN) potential parameters to investigate correlations among neutron–proton (\(np\)) scattering observables. To this end, we employ the up-to-date NN semilocal momentum-space regularized chiral interactions, solve the Lippman–Schwinger equation, and compute NN observables and their correlations. As a result, we present a systematic analysis of the correlation coefficients between the asymmetry \(P\) and the depolarisations \(A, A^{\prime }\) observables at two incoming laboratory energies \(E_{\mathrm {lab}} = 30\) MeV and \(E_{\mathrm {lab}} = 65\) MeV.

Charge State Evolution in Electron Beam Ion Trap

Acta Phys. Pol. B Proc. Suppl. 13, 975 (2020)

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Recently, at the M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University a commercial electron beam ion trap (EBIT) was installed for teaching and scientific purposes. The first experiments were focused on observation of radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination. An investigation of higher order resonant recombination processes was also initiated. These recombination processes depend strongly on the charge state of the ions involved in these processes. The EBIT plasma contains always a mixture of different charge states. Therefore, the charge-state distribution of the ions is crucial for the observed atomic processes. A new diagnostics tool for this distribution and a possibility of its manipulation form the main goal of the present paper which may help to better understand the processes investigated with an EBIT.


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